Innovation in Law Enforcement: Evaluating the Impact of Innovative Technology on Small Police Forces and the Development of the Police Technology Management Theory
The advancements in law enforcement technology, particularly in predictive and real-time policing, have dramatically reshaped the landscape of crime prevention and response strategies. As law enforcement agencies contend with shifting societal pressures, rising crime rates, and limited resources, these technological innovations serve as a crucial tool for enhancing the efficacy of policing. Roger (2017) introduced the Plural Policing Theory (PTT) to show that police cannot be effective and efficient on their own. The need for community, private, and alternative support is necessary.
Police technology has seen an evolution from simple mapping algorithms to predictive policing, and now to real-time crime centers. For police departments, demonstrating the agility of adopting and integrating cutting-edge technology has become a crucial strategy for long–term growth. However, Small agencies with limited resources may be at a disadvantage compared to larger departments with the ability to quickly acquire and implement innovative technologies.
The purpose of this study is to determine how small to medium size law enforcement agencies can strategically plan the procurement, implementation, expansion and maintenance of innovative policing technologies.
The study will look at three small to medium size law enforcement agencies in Florida and the correlation between the implementation of policing technology and a decrease in various crimes after the implementation of Real-Time Command Centers (RTCC). Secondary data will be obtained directly from the commanders of the RTCCs at the Manatee County Sheriff’s Office, The Collier County Sheriff’s Office, and at the City of Hialeah Police Department. The commanders of each center have agreed to provide publicly available pre- and post-implementation data to aid this research.
The first objective of this research is to show how implementing policing technologies expands the Plura Policing Theory. However, the main objective of this research is to create the Police Technology Management Theory to address how small to medium law enforcement agencies can strategically plan for the upfront and the ongoing costs to manage and expand their technology use.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
The proposed research questions and hypotheses will guide the study to assess each case’s impact on the city and department.
- RQ1 – To what extent does the implementation of a Real-Time Command Center by law enforcement agencies correlate with a decrease in violent crimes.
- H0 – The implementation of a Real-Time Command Center has no significant correlation with a decrease in violent crime.
- Ha – The implementation of a Real-Time Command Center has a significant correlation with a decrease in violent crime.
- RQ2 – Small law enforcement agencies and municipalities have the budget and infrastructure to implement Real-Time Command Center technology?
- H0 – Small sized law enforcement agencies do not have the budget and infrastructure required to implement their own RTCC.
- Ha – Small law enforcement agencies do not have the budget and infrastructure required to implement their own RTCC.
- RQ3 – Can small law enforcement agencies and municipalities benefit from developing plans to procure, implement, expand, and maintain policing technology?
- H0 – Small law enforcement agencies will not benefit from Police Technology Management policies
- Ha – Small law enforcement agencies will not benefit from Police Technology Management policies
Coppola, M. (2016). Real-Time Crime Center Serves as Force Multiplier. Office of Justice Programs. https://www.ojp.gov/library/publications/real-time-crime-center-serves-force-multiplier
Rogers, C. (2017). Plural policing: Theory and practice. Policy Press.
QUALITATIVE VIEW OF LEADERSHIP STYLES FROM A FOLLOWERS’ PERSPECTIVE
- A brief introduction of your topic idea. This should be a paragraph or two that explains your idea, the rationale and purpose statement for your proposed research.
Overview of the Study
Leadership is a topic of business organizations today based on a perceived lack of leaders that exist (Clinton, 2018). Organizations look to leadership development to understand, predict, and affect change to better themselves (Day et al. 2021). Yavuz (2020) suggests that leadership can be learned, with followers responding by showing motivation, engagement, and well being. Kouzes and Posner (2019) researched and found that managers that are mindful of how they engage, and lead are more impactful on areas in an organization. Organizations understand the need for training their leaders to capitalize on methods that possibly could make their companies and teams more efficient and productive, as a result companies spend on average $2500 annually per person that the leadership training industry is over $366 billion, with $166 billion alone being spent in the United States annually (Westfall 2022).
Bridging the gap between the follower’s perceptions of their leader’s style, this qualitative research may create a better understanding of what might leaders can do to fulfill their potential by using various leadership styles as viewed from the follower’s perspective. Companies can capitalize on pairing leadership styles with what the subordinates feel they need from them, possibly creating better cohesion and efficiencies.
Background of the Problem
Leaders influence followers and the impact they have is directly linked to organizational performance, those influences can be both positive or negative depending on the style (Al Khajeh, 2018). Tepper et al. (2018) suggests when followers’ needs for a certain style of leadership is given, they are observed as being more positive using the experience sampling method (ESM). Leaders must take the perspective of their followers to understand what is important to them, as much as what may be most effective to use as a style.
One impact is organizational effectiveness based on leadership styles chosen by leaders. The style they choose directly has consequences on whether the organization is run smoothly and efficiently, based on implementation of leadership. Choi et al. (2017) found that different leadership styles contribute to different aspects of team effectiveness. Klien et al. (2013) found that leadership skills and styles are critical to the success of organizations and have a far-reaching impact. Their research of over 2,600 individuals and organizations showed that it is the key factor in ensuring success.
Statement of the Problem
To identify impact the follower’s perspective has on organization effectiveness and their leadership needs. Leaders put emphasis on being effective by associating with one of several styles of leadership that works for them. Followers may not be as concerned about a specific style as much as individual traits that meet their needs as workers. Understanding the correlation of what skills a leader has against the possible needs of the collective to possibly create understanding and close the gap in delivering better overall team cohesion.
Purpose of the Study
To identify impact followers and their perspectives that they have on organization effectiveness and their leadership views. Leaders can emphasis being effective by associating with one of several styles of leadership that works for them. Followers may not be as concerned about a specific style as much as individual traits that meet their needs as workers.
Significance of the Study
Researcher have studied the impact of leadership styles and the positive effects it has on organizations (Bass, 1985; Al Khajeh, 2018; Para-González et al., 2018). Ye et al. (2011) found that in their research they could correlate styles to things such as increased innovation in an organization. This study will see if the style identification of the leader has similar impacts on the followers. The perception model will expand upon research into both leadership styles and effective outcomes, but from the followers’ point of view. It will bridge a gap in knowledge by contributing data of the importance on identification and implementation of styles on groups who are disinterested in categorizing their leader.
- Research questions: You should have 2 to 5 research questions that are in line with your introduction.
RQ 1: Do specific leadership styles impact how successful teams are?
RQ 2: Are leadership styles aligned to followers needs?
RQ3: Do organizations consciously assign leaders by style or trait to certain roles?
RQ 4: Can organizations quantify cost benefits of formal leadership training?
RQ 5: Would teaching followers how better to be led, be as effective as leadership training?
Al Khajeh, E. H. (2018). Impact of leadership styles on organizational performance. Journal of
Human Resources Management Research, 2018, 1-10.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership: Good, Better, Best. Organizational Dynamics, 13(3), 26–40.
Choi, S. B., Kim, K., & Kang, S. W. (2017). Effects of transformational and shared leadership
styles on employees’ perception of team effectiveness. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 45(3), 377-386.
Clinton, R. (2018). The making of a leader: Recognizing the lessons and stages of leadership
development. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc..
Day, D. V., Riggio, R. E., Tan, S. J., & Conger, J. A. (2021). Advancing the science of 21st-
century leadership development: Theory, research, and practice. The Leadership Quarterly, 32(5), 101557.
Kouzes, T. K., & Posner, B. Z. (2019). Influence of managers’ mindset on leadership behavior.
Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 40(8), 829-844.
Klein, A. S., Wallis, J., & Cooke, R. A. (2013). The impact of leadership styles on organizational
culture and firm effectiveness: An empirical study. Journal of Management &
Organization, 19(3), 241-254.
Para-González, L., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Martínez-Lorente, A. R. (2018). Exploring the
mediating effects between transformational leadership and organizational performance. Employee Relations, 40(2), 412-432.
Tepper, B. J., Dimotakis, N., Lambert, L. S., Koopman, J., Matta, F. K., Man Park, H., & Goo,
W. (2018). Examining follower responses to transformational leadership from a dynamic, person–environment fit perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 61(4), 1343-1368.
Westfall, C. (2022, October 12). Leadership development is a $366 billion industry: Here’s why
most programs don’t work. Forbes.
Yavuz, M. (2020). Transformational leadership and authentic leadership as practical implications
of positive organizational psychology. In Handbook of research on positive organizational behavior for improved workplace performance (pp. 122-139). IGI Global.
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