The instructional cycle: using assessment for learning | TNT 700.8

Preparing for the Using Data to Plan Instruction Project

I am using data to plan instruction in Dance I Music Unit. The targeted TEK(S) for this lesson is 117.306 c3A

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perform memorized movement sequences with rhythmical accuracy in dance genres and styles such as ballet,

modern dance, tap, jazz, musical theatre dance, and world dance forms. The students’ class objective is to be

able to demonstrate the beat of a song using their bodies, identify the time signature of a piece of music, and be

able to count a 4/4 song in 8’s and a 3/4 song in 6’s. During class, I gave a formative assessment to check for


The formative assessment I gave was an exit ticket posted on Schoology. Students listened to an excerpt of a

song and completed the following steps.

1. Listen to the song

2. Find the beat of the music

3. Find the downbeat or the one count, and

4. Count in either sets of eight or sets of six.

These listed steps will help students establish whether the song’s time signature is 4/4 time or 3/4 time.

First, I played two practice songs, one in 4/4 time and one in 3/4 time. I did a think aloud, explaining my

thought process to come to the conclusion whether the song was either 4/4 time or 3/4 time. Then I played

a series of 3 songs.

Students listened to the first song, followed the given steps to determine whether the song was 4/4 time or 3/4

time. Students would record their answer on Schoology as a comment on the Music Exit ticket post. Students

would repeat this process for two more songs. Students submitted their answers after listening to all three

songs. Students without a phone or iPad to use in class, recorded their answers on a piece of paper and

submitted them in their class box. Here is excerpt from the Schoology post and a sample of three students. My

analysis includes all students.

Formative Assessment: Exit Ticket – Music Lesson

After listening, decide if the song is in a 4/4 or 3/4 time signature. (Teacher will play 3 different

The assessment was considered a schoology activity but could also be considered a short quiz in which the

results were used solely to collect formative data and not for a grade.

To score the data, I recorded whether the student got three out of three correct, two out of three correct, one

out of three correct, or none out of three correct. I took note of which ones students were frequently missing.

For this specific activity, many students struggled with the third song. A few students also missed the first song

as well.

I analyzed the data for this activity. Three students struggled with the first song and did not put the correct


STUDENT #1 3 3 / 4 4 / 4 4 / 4
STUDENT #2 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #3 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #4 2 4 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #5 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #6 1 4 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #7 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #8 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #9 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #10 3 3 / 4 4 / 4 4 / 4
STUDENT #11 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #12 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #13 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #14 0 4 / 4 3 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #15 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #16 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #17 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #18 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #19 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4
STUDENT #20 2 3 / 4 4 / 4 3 / 4

Data Quality 10 pts

Data Analysis – 20 pts – throughout the
next two paragraphs

answer. The first song was 3/4 time signature which is sometimes harder to detected. Only one student got the

second song incorrect. Eighteen students got the third song incorrect. The third song was a slow 4/4 time

signature. I think many students got caught in the misconception that a slow tempo song equals 3/4 time

signature. After analyzing this formative data, there are definitely a few things that I need to reteach and clarify.

My next lesson will start by focusing on that third song of the exit ticket from the previous day. The class will

listen to the song they struggled with the most. I will explain the proper way to count the music and the

students will have an opportunity to adjust their thinking. According to the book, How People Learn

Feedback is most valuable when students have the opportunity to use it to revise their thinking
as they are working on a unit or project. The addition of opportunities for a formative
assessment increases students’ learning and transfer, and they learn to value opportunities to
revise (Barron et al, 1998; Black and William, 1998; Vyeet al., 1998b.) (Bransford, et al 141).

According to this research strategy, students will best adjust their thinking when they get to continue to work

with the area for which they are receiving feedback. With that in mind, I will explain in several different ways

why the song is a 4/4 time signature and not a 3/4 time signature. Note how she ties the research back to her

next steps.

I will use the illustration of finding the downbeat and filling in the number of beats or “puzzle pieces” it takes to

get to the next downbeat. There should be 7 beats or “puzzle pieces” between downbeats because dancers

count 4/4 time signature in eights. This illustration is done on the white board for all the visual learners. We will

also do a physical activity for those who learn kinesthetically. We will stand up in one big circle, march on the

beat around the circle, and clap on all the downbeats. We will also do physical examples for 3/4 time signature.

As for my students with Individualized Education Program plans and Specific Language needs, these same

explanations and activities will help them as well. The use of visual cues and the extra time we put into this

lesson will help them tremendously. I will gather formative assessments on them as well as the rest of the class

through observation. This is to ensure everyone is understanding this example. I am teaching them ways to find

Data analysis as it impacts next steps. Note the
research cited to support strategies – 10 pts.

Targeted supports and learning interventions

the time signature of a song not only for this example but for all music played throughout the year.

The targeted objective for students to be able to demonstrate the beat of a song using their bodies, identify the

time signature of a piece of music, and be able to count a 4/4 song in 8’s and a 3/4 song in 6’s is derived from

the TEK(S). After these lessons, students will be set up for success to accomplish this TEK(S) and perform dance

phrases with proper musicality.

Bransford, John D., et al. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington D.C., National
Academy Press, 2004.
Texas Education Agency- Fine Arts Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)